[129], India maintained close ties with neighbouring Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) following the Liberation War. The most prominent of the Kashmiri separatists, Sheikh Abdullah, had to recognise India's control over Kashmir in light of the new order in South Asia. However, they received a final setback when many of them were defeated by huge margins. The insurgents soon agreed to surrender and signed the Shillong Accord in 1975. The political economist, Jyotindra Das Gupta, cryptically questioned "...whether or not the real supporters of land-holders were in jail or in power? 3 November 1994. [87], She remains the only woman to occupy the Office of the Prime Minister of India. [17], Indira was taught mostly at home by tutors and attended school intermittently until matriculation in 1934. I shall continue to serve until my last breath and when I die, I can say, that every drop of my blood will invigorate India and strengthen it  ...[103] Even if I died in the service of the nation, I would be proud of it. Case Study: Smt. [2] She was the first and, to date, only female Prime Minister of India. Privacy Policy | The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, established in memory of Smt. Several books on Gandhi mention her interest in Joan of Arc. On their part, the ASEAN nations were unhappy with Gandhi's sympathy for the Viet Cong and India's strong links with the USSR. Gandhi presided over three Five-Year Plans as prime minister, two of which succeeded in meeting their targeted growth. "Indira Gandhi." Gandhi was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat. Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top at once." Women As National Leaders. [45] The Green Revolution in India subsequently culminated under her government in the 1970s. Gandhi had a personal motive in pursuing agricultural self-sufficiency, having found India's dependency on the U.S. for shipments of grains humiliating. [198][207] The defeat of Pakistan in 1971 and the secession of East Pakistan as pro-India Bangladesh led to the collapse of the Mizo separatist movement. Twenty six political organizations were banned and over 100,000 Indian citizens were arrested. [14] She had a lonely and unhappy childhood. The resulting turbulence in the foreign exchange markets was accentuated further by the oil shock of 1973. [166] Armed with the power to rule by decree and without constitutional constraints, Gandhi embarked on a massive redistribution program. Golden Temple massacre Assassinated. In 1975, Gandhi declared the state of Jammu and Kashmir as a constituent unit of India. It transformed the country from a nation heavily reliant on imported grains, and prone to famine, to one largely able to feed itself, and becoming successful in achieving its goal of food security. Shrimati Indira Gandhi was born on 19th November 1917 at Anand Bhawan in Uttar Pradesh. This had been her first economic policy formulation, six months after coming to office. [160] In 1981, Gandhi met President Ronald Reagan for the first time at the North–South Summit held to discuss global poverty. Under this scheme, the beneficiary is given monthly financial help for better and easier life. [214], The programme became fully mature in 1974, when Dr. Raja Ramanna reported to Gandhi that India had the ability to test its first nuclear weapon. She argued the case for abolition based on equal rights for all citizens and the need to reduce the government's revenue deficit. POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP 2020. [23] There it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the University of Oxford. [93] After being arrested over this matter, Bhindranwale disassociated himself from the Congress Party and joined Akali Dal. As one writer said: "The Indian people were her children; members of her family were the only people capable of leading them. It is a maternity benefit rechristened from erstwhile Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY). 43,000,000 (4.34 crore) and invited joint venture bids from automobile companies around the world. "Flying kites, climbing trees, playing marbles with her boy cousins, Indira said she hardly knew the difference between a boy and a girl until the age of twelve. Operation Blue Star was the biggest internal security mission ever undertaken by the Indian Army, in 1984. Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust, New York: Malhotra, Inder. The transition to statehood for these territories was successfully overseen by her administration. [201] Nevertheless, critics alleged that her stance was actually meant to weaken the position of rival Congress leaders from the northern states such as Uttar Pradesh, where there had been strong, sometimes violent, pro-Hindi agitations. [25] Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a poor performance in Latin. W roku 1969 rozpoczęto czwartą pięciolatkę, a rząd ukierunkował wzrost na poziomie 5,7% oraz postawił sobie jako cel „wzrost stabilności i stopniowe osiąganie samodzielności” [41] . The Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust     | "[170] Regardless of the debate over her ideology or lack thereof, Gandhi remains a left-wing icon. The public-private partnership Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) completed a massive, fast-track modernization program to expand airport capacity, improve operational … Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer stated that she attacked the temple complex to present herself as a great hero in order to win the general elections planned towards the end of 1984. [179], The economic period of 1967–75 became significant for its major wave of nationalisation amidst increased regulation of the private sector. Born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad, India, Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was the sole child of Kamala and Jawaharlal Nehru. This was unacceptable to many non-Hindi speaking states, which wanted the continued use of English in government. [citation needed] On 23 June, Sanjay was killed in a plane crash while performing an aerobatic manoeuvre in New Delhi. [192] Jayaprakash Narayan, who became famous for leading the opposition to Gandhi in the 1970s, solidly praised her nationalisation of banks. The government was successful in bringing down inflation during the emergency; achieving negative figures of −1.1% by the end of 1975–76. Under Gandhi, by the early 1980s, the Soviets had become India's largest trading partner. While this statement appears paradoxical, it reflects Gandhi's complex feelings toward her gender and feminism. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/indira-gandhi-47.php [157] She also enjoyed a close working relationship with many British leaders including conservative premiers, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher. [150] Victory over Pakistan and India's possession of nuclear weapons showed the degree of India's progress. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. In 1999, Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC. [194], In 1966, Gandhi accepted the demands of the Akalis to reorganise Punjab on linguistic lines. This established the official government policy of bilingualism in India and satisfied the non-Hindi speaking Indian states. A small-scale insurgency by some militants continued into the late 1970s, but it was successfully dealt with by the government. India conducted its first “peaceful nuclear experiment” as she described it on May 18, 1974, building up the country’s capability without anyone finding out. Her lieutenant, P. V. Narasimha Rao, later became prime minister and approved full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992. As early as 1969, critics had begun accusing her of insincerity and machiavellianism. [60], Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. In 1979, the government began to unravel over the issue of the dual loyalties of some members to Janata and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS)—the Hindu nationalist,[78][79] paramilitary[80] organisation. Indira Gandhi built upon the foundations laid by Jawaharlal Nehru to convert India into a growing nuclear power. [147] Gandhi appreciated the Shah's disregard of Pan-Islamism in diplomacy. The Hindi-speaking southern half of Punjab became a separate state, Haryana, while the Pahari speaking hilly areas in the northeast were joined to Himachal Pradesh. IGU Meerpur B.Ed and M.Ed Admission 2020 – Maharshi Dayanand University invites online application for admission to B.Ed. [62] Police were granted powers to impose curfews and detain citizens indefinitely; all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy; Norman, Dorothy. [67] It was also quipped that Sanjay Gandhi had total control over his mother and that the government was run by the PMH (Prime Minister House) rather than the PMO (Prime Minister Office). This mammoth sports complex was originally built for the 1982 Asian Games. "[223][224], Gandhi did not often discuss her gender, but she did involve herself in women's issues before becoming the prime minister. Being influenced and inspired by her parents, Indira Gandhi rose to power in India and eventually became prime minister. Dr. T D Dogra's Expert Evidence in trial of assassination of Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (Witness No. [97] The Statesman later reported that light machine guns and semi-automatic rifles were known to have been brought into the compound. [181] During Charan Singh's short time in office in the second half of 1979, inflation averaged 18.2%, compared to 6.5% during Gandhi's last year in office (1984). In Bihar, Jayaprakash Narayan, the veteran leader came out of retirement to lead the protest movement there. Subsequently, Dr. Dogra appeared in Shri Mahesh Chandra's court as an expert witness (PW-5); his testimony took several sessions. [211], Gandhi contributed to, and carried out further, the vision of Jawaharlal Nehru, former premier of India, to develop its nuclear program. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr. Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman recognised Gandhi's contributions to the independence of Bangladesh. Athletics & apartheid. [145] Libya agreed with the Arab monarchies in believing that Gandhi's intervention in East Pakistan was an attack against Islam. As prime minister, Gandhi was known for her political intransigency and unprecedented centralisation of power. Nevertheless, Gandhi's close relations with reunified Vietnam and her decision to recognize the Vietnam-installed Government of Cambodia in 1980 meant that India and ASEAN were unable to develop a viable partnership. [41] Grain diplomacy and currency devaluation became matters of intense national pride in India. [180], Gandhi inherited a weak economy when she became prime minister again in 1980. [45] The policies of the Congress under Gandhi, before the 1971 elections, also included proposals for the abolition of the Privy Purse to former rulers of the princely states and the 1969 nationalization of the fourteen largest banks in India. Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru, independent India’s first prime minister (1947-64), and Indira spent her life amid Indian politics. [165][173] Much of that growth, however, was offset by the fact that the external aid promised by the United States government and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), meant to ease the short-run costs of adjustment to a liberalised economy, never materialised. She enjoyed cordial relations with Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike. [56], Despite the victory against Pakistan, the Congress government faced numerous problems during this term. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered the military operation Sikh Militants from the Harmandir Sahib Complex, or the Golden Temple located in Amritsar, Punjab. Jayakar, Pupul. [225] In 1956, Gandhi had an active role in setting up the Congress Party's Women's Section. Furthermore, there was a great resentment against class banking in India, which had left the poor (the majority of the population) unbanked. [185] Gandhi declared inflation the gravest of problems in 1974 (at 25.2%) and devised a severe anti-inflation program. [136] Israel was viewed as a religious state, and thus an analogue to India's archrival Pakistan. Call for Applications. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford. [182][185] General economic recovery under Gandhi led to an average inflation rate of 6.5% from 1981–82 to 1985–86—the lowest since the beginning of India's inflation problems in the 1960s. Indira Gandhi International Airport is the busiest and largest airport in India. [189] After becoming prime minister, Gandhi expressed her intention of nationalising the banks to alleviate poverty in a paper titled, "Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalisation". The scholarship is only available for undergraduate and postgraduate programs. [242], Gandhi's main legacy was standing firm in the face of American pressure to defeat Pakistan and turn East Pakistan into independent Bangladesh. The company launched its first Indian manufactured car in 1984. However, in May 1976, Gandhi and Bhutto both agreed to reopen diplomatic establishments and normalise relations. [150] After reaching a high diplomatic point in the aftermath of Nehru's role in the Suez Crisis, India's isolation from Africa was complete when only four nations—Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Libya—supported her during the Sino-Indian War in 1962. [190] The paper received overwhelming public support. [25] At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor. [132] Gandhi's relationship with the military regimes was strained because of her alleged support of anti-Islamist leftist guerrilla forces in Bangladesh. [121] India had signed a treaty with the Soviet Union promising mutual assistance in the case of war,[120] while Pakistan received active support from the United States during the conflict. The Congress Party won a reduced majority in the Lok Sabha after these elections owing to widespread disenchantment over the rising prices of commodities, unemployment, economic stagnation and a food crisis. Indira Nehru Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 and would be the only child of Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru. This was characterised by servility and sycophancy towards the family which later turned into a hereditary succession of Gandhi family members to power. [193] After nationalisation, the oil majors such as the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and the Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) had to keep a minimum stock level of oil, to be supplied to the military when needed. In 1969, she fell out with senior Congress party leaders over several issues. [149], Although independent India was initially viewed as a champion of various African independence movements, its cordial relationship with the Commonwealth of Nations and its liberal views of British policies in East Africa had harmed its image as a staunch supporter of various independence movements in the third world. The Soviets became the main arms supplier during the Gandhi years by offering cheap credit and transactions in rupees rather than in dollars. In one of the early interviews she gave as prime minister, Gandhi had ruminated: "I suppose you could call me a socialist, but you have understand what we mean by that term ... we used the word [socialism] because it came closest to what we wanted to do here – which is to eradicate poverty. [150] Furthermore, the conclusion of the Indo-Soviet treaty in 1971, and threatening gestures by the United States, to send its nuclear armed Task Force 74 into the Bay of Bengal at the height of the East Pakistan crisis had enabled India to regain its anti-imperialist image. Indira Gandhi received education in different places because her parents were constantly moving. [85] In this election, Gandhi was elected by the voters of the Medak constituency. [136] India under Gandhi was alleged to have supported the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) militants in the 1980s to put pressure on Jayewardene to abide by Indian interests. Gandhi declared the people of Indian origin settled in Africa as "Ambassadors of India". [65], The Emergency saw the entry of Gandhi's younger son, Sanjay Gandhi, into Indian politics. [212] In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named "Smiling Buddha", near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. [8][9], Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru into a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. [162], The measures of the emergency regime was able to halt the economic trouble of the early to mid-1970s, which had been marred by harvest failures, fiscal contraction, and the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchanged rates. She noted that her main problem in office was how to balance her political duties with tending to her children, and "stressed that motherhood was the most important part of her life. [185] On average, inflation in India had remained below 7% through the 1950s and 1960s. A refugee crisis put pressure on her. The party included right wing Hindu Nationalists, Socialists and former Congress party members. [41] The economy managed to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at 4.1% over 1966–1969. [128], The principle of equal pay for equal work for both men and women was enshrined in the Indian Constitution under the Gandhi administration. That government had the distinction of being India's first-ever elected Communist Government. [165] It was the economic rationale of the emergency, a political act which has often been justified on economic grounds. PW 5) Raina Anupuma, Lalwani Sanjeev, Dogra TD, Dept. The international airport at New Delhi is named Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honour. Longowal said "Whenever the situation becomes ripe for settlement, some violent incident takes place. [202] The communist insurgency in India was completely suppressed during the state of emergency. [138] Gandhi made a statement emphasising that she stood for the territorial integrity of Sri Lanka, although she also stated that India cannot "remain a silent spectator to any injustice done to the Tamil community. [144] But, the death of Nasser in 1970 and Sadat's growing friendship with Riyadh, and his mounting differences with Moscow, constrained Egypt to a policy of neutrality. [166] Nevertheless, others have disputed the success of the program and criticised Gandhi for not doing enough to reform land ownership. [68][69][70], In 1977, after extending the state of emergency twice, Gandhi called elections to give the electorate a chance to vindicate her rule. Indira Nehru Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 and would be the only child of Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru. [46], Garibi Hatao (Eradicate Poverty) was the resonant theme for Gandhi's 1971 political bid. [215] Despite India being officially part of the Non-Aligned Movement, she gave Indian foreign policy a tilt towards the Soviet bloc. The cross examination was conducted by Shri Pran Nath Lekhi, the defence counsel. [217], She married Feroze Gandhi at the age of 25, in 1942. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led Kerala State Government dismissed in 1959. The Indian Libertarian wrote that: "it would be difficult to find a more machiavellian leftist than Mrs Indira Gandhi ... for here is Machiavelli at its best in the person of a suave, charming and astute politician. Egypt's stance was met with dismay by the Indians, who had come to expect close co-operation with the Baathist regimes. She had only a general and traditional commitment to the ideology by way of her political and family ties. [191] Nationalisation also resulted in significant growth in the geographic coverage of banks; the number of bank branches rose from 8,200 to over 62,000, most of which were opened in unbanked, rural areas. San Diego: Jayakar, Pupul. "[124] Relations with the U.S. became distant as Gandhi developed closer ties with the Soviet Union after the war. These steps culminated in party president S. Nijalingappa expelling her from the party for indiscipline. The arrest meant that Gandhi was automatically expelled from Parliament. Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards on 31 October 1984. "[238], Her domestic initiatives did not necessarily reflect favourably on Indian women. The Indira Gandhi National Open University is a well-established distance learning institute that offers degrees to students in various fields. [200] However, the proclamation was struck down by the Supreme Court of India. Her detractors accuse her of weakening State chief ministers and thereby weakening the federal structure, weakening the independence of the judiciary, and weakening her cabinet by vesting power in her secretariat and her sons. "[166] Critics also accused Gandhi of choosing to "talk left and act right", referring to her concurrent pro-business decisions and endeavours. [5] In the Congress Party's parliamentary leadership election held in early 1966 (upon the death of Shastri), she defeated her rival Morarji Desai to become leader, and thus succeeded Shastri as Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi used the emergency provisions to change conflicting party members: Unlike her father Jawaharlal Nehru, who preferred to deal with strong chief ministers in control of their legislative parties and state party organizations, Mrs. Gandhi set out to remove every Congress chief minister who had an independent base and to replace each of them with ministers personally loyal to her...Even so, stability could not be maintained in the states...[64], President Ahmed issued ordinances that did not require debate in the Parliament, allowing Gandhi to rule by decree. [34] After her father's death in 1964 she was appointed a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and served in Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting. President of the Indian National Congress, List of state visits made by Indira Gandhi, authorisation of the detonation of a nuclear device, suffered persecution and eventually expulsion, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India, Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration, List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government, "Rahul first in three generations with a world university degree", "19th November 2017: 100 years of Indira Gandhi. Environment Program. At the same time, Indo-US relations were strained because of Gandhi's criticism of the American bombing campaign in Vietnam. South Asian History and Culture 1.4 (2010): 480–493. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: [ˈɪndɪraː ˈɡaːndʱiː] (); née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. Candidates who want to take Post degree, degree, diploma, and certificate courses can be applied before the 4th week of July 2021. [45] Sunanda K. Datta-Ray described her as "a master of rhetoric ... often more posture than policy", while The Times journalist, Peter Hazelhurst, famously quipped that Gandhi's socialism was "slightly left of self-interest. Indira Gandhi Scholarship 2021: Applications are open for Applicants interested in the Indira Gandhi Scholarship for Single Girl Child funded by Union Government of India. New Delhi: Former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi emerged as the greatest and much-celebrated heroine after India's victory in the 1971 war with Pakistan that led to the creation of Bangladesh but faced widespread criticism for signing the Simla Agreement without sorting out the Kashmir issue, says a new book.. As the constitution requires that the Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha, the two houses of the Parliament of India, she was effectively removed from office. [37], Her first eleven years serving as Prime Minister saw Gandhi evolve from the perception of Congress party leaders as their puppet, to a strong leader with the iron resolve to split the party over her policy positions, or to go to war with Pakistan to liberate Bangladesh. [145], The 1971 war became a temporary stumbling block in growing Indo-Iranian ties. He wielded tremendous power during the emergency without holding any government office. Before the war, Gandhi signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviets. The rebellion was suppressed with the Indian Air Force carrying out airstrikes in Aizawl; this remains the only instance of India carrying out an airstrike in its own territory. [71] She was opposed by the Janata alliance of Opposition parties. "[163] Critics have focused on the contradictions in the evolution of her stance towards communism. Designed to covers a wide range of areas, including to increased focus on developing national security, social welfare, economic and social affair, money and taxes. During Nehru's time as Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964, Gandhi was considered a key assistant and accompanied him on his numerous foreign trips. The public-private partnership Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) completed a massive, fast-track modernization program to expand airport capacity, improve operational … Feroze Gandhi died. In the 1950s, Indira, now Mrs. Indira Gandhi after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first prime minister of India. Indira Gandhi National Open University, the largest open university in the world (IGNOU) offers MBA courses to management education aspirants from all over India and eligible foriegn students. India's entry into the nuclear weapons club in 1974 also contributed to tensions in Southeast Asia. In an effort to split the Akali Dal and gain popular support among the Sikhs, Gandhi's Congress Party helped to bring the orthodox religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale to prominence in Punjab politics. Gandhi did not make a special effort to appoint women to cabinet positions. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar Jail. [189], Having been re-elected in 1971 on a nationalisation platform, Gandhi proceeded to nationalise the coal, steel, copper, refining, cotton textiles, and insurance industries. Applicants may apply again when IGIDR advertises after it resumes in-campus activities fully. Populist programmes and policies were replaced by pragmatism. On 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh fired a total of 31 bullets on Indira Gandhi from their service weapons as a revenge of the Golden Temple assault at her residence - 1, Safdarjung Road in New Delhi and she succumbed to her injuries.

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